The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). A special magnifying device with a light, called a colposcope, can be used to visually examine the cervix and vagina.

Colposcopy is usually done when a:

  • Pap test is abnormal
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) test is positive for certain subtypes that place you at an increased risk for developing cancer

This procedure can be used to:

  • Help diagnose cervical cancer or precancerous changes
  • Give more information about abnormal cells found on a pap smear
  • Find the location where a tissue biopsy should be done
  • Monitor treatment of abnormalities of the cervix
  • Allow a visual exam of the cervix, vaginal walls, or vulva


Cryosurgery is a type of surgery that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissues, such as tumors, similar to the technique used when doctors freeze off warts using liquid nitrogen spray.

The surgery most often involves the use of liquid nitrogen, although carbon dioxide and argon may also be used. When liquid nitrogen has a temperature between -346 and -320°F, it instantly freezes nearly anything that’s in contact with it. In the case of human tissue, it can kill and destroy cells upon contact. This is important when the cells you want to kill are cancerous.

Cryosurgery is typically used for tumors or precancerous lesions found on your skin. However, some tumors inside the body can be treated this way as well. Advances in cryosurgery technology have dramatically reduced the long-term side effects once associated with the treatment.


Female hormones can affect fertility as well as the general quality of life. A hormone evaluation can measure levels of a variety of hormones, including estradiol and progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and more. Understanding hormone levels can help a woman identify a potential need for fertility treatment or hormone replacement therapy during perimenopause.


A diagnostic procedure performed under anesthesia with an instrument to look into the pelvis and visualize the pelvic cavity. Many problems can be treated during this procedure like removal of ovarian cyst and removal of endometrial implants.


A hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman’s uterus. Depending on the situation, part or all of the uterus may be removed. After a hysterectomy, you will no longer have a menstrual period. We perform hysterectomies in different ways, depending on your health history and the reason for your surgery.


This is done through a 5-7 inch incision, or cut, in the lower part of your belly. The cut may go either up and down, or across your belly, just above your pubic hair.


A laparoscope is an instrument with a thin, lighted tube and small camera that allows your doctor to see your pelvic organs. Your doctor will make three to four small cuts in your belly and insert the laparoscope and other instruments. He or she will cut your uterus into smaller pieces and remove them through the incisions.

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is a surgical procedure using a laparoscope to guide the removal of the uterus and/or Fallopian tubes and ovaries through the vagina (birth canal).


This is done through a cut in the vagina. The doctor will take your uterus out through this incision and close it with stitches.


Hysteroscopy is used to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. We perform the hysteroscopy with a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube we insert into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus.


LEEP is a treatment for abnormal cells on the cervix. LEEP – short for loop electrosurgical excision procedure – removes abnormal tissue by cutting it away using a thin wire loop that carries an electrical current. It may be performed after abnormal cells are found during a Pap test, colposcopy, or biopsy.