Cryosurgery is a type of surgery that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissues, such as tumors, similar to the technique used when doctors freeze off warts using liquid nitrogen spray.

The surgery most often involves the use of liquid nitrogen, although carbon dioxide and argon may also be used. When liquid nitrogen has a temperature between -346 and -320°F, it instantly freezes nearly anything that’s in contact with it. In the case of human tissue, it can kill and destroy cells upon contact. This is important when the cells you want to kill are cancerous.

Cryosurgery is typically used for tumors or precancerous lesions found on your skin. However, some tumors inside the body can be treated this way as well. Advances in cryosurgery technology have dramatically reduced the long-term side effects once associated with the treatment.


The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). A special magnifying device with a light, called a colposcope, can be used to visually examine the cervix and vagina.

Colposcopy is usually done when a:

  • Pap test is abnormal
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) test is positive for certain subtypes that place you at an increased risk for developing cancer

This procedure can be used to:

  • Help diagnose cervical cancer or precancerous changes
  • Give more information about abnormal cells found on a pap smear
  • Find the location where a tissue biopsy should be done
  • Monitor treatment of abnormalities of the cervix
  • Allow a visual exam of the cervix, vaginal walls, or vulva


A less-invasive, permanent sterilization procedure that is performed in the office. It works by inducing fibrosis and blocks the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization.


Hysteroscopy is used to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. We perform the hysteroscopy with a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube we insert into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus.